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Bacolod City -- Why did the chicken cross the street?

Certainly not to be roasted, not yet anyway, but to seek perhaps its own arena and fight the way of the ancient gladiators-- as good bred cocks are meant to be. And even as this is frowned upon by some, its association with Filipino culture has given the gamefowl industry an anchor to assert itself as a legitimate industry. Thus, from its pre-Spanish beginnings, this "other chicken industry" had now grown beyond the backyard into a fully developed multi-billion peso business.

Based on quarantine records of the Provincial Veterinary Office of Negros Occidental, about 140,000 heads of gamefowl are being shipped out of the province annually. At an average price of P4,000 per head, that's about P558 million or half a billion pesos worth of this chicken crossing the Visayan seas to be bred or pitted elsewhere. And that is just the tip of the iceberg.

This figure would balloon many times more if we count in the other gamefowl bred and sold in other provinces as well as the value of collateral businesses. This includes the smallest supplier of gaffs and knives, feeding cups, scratch pen, and cords to the biggest manufacturer of agro-veterinary products, both local and multi-national companies. Industry insiders estimate that at any given time, the country has about 10 million stags being conditioned to fight or ready for breeding.

Why Negros?

In the Philippines , the province of Negros Occidental is the virtual mecca of gamefowl breeding. "This is because Negros came in first in the industry," says former La Carlota City Mayor Juancho Aguirre, president of the Negros Gamefowl Breeders Association (NGBA). "Being so, it is here where the expertise in gamefowl breeding was developed. And it takes a lot of patience and money to breed good chickens." he said.

One of the country's more successful breeder who had been in the business the last 30 years, Aguirre enthuse, that one has to love the sport to be able to breed good chickens. "If you don't love what you're doing, you can not produce good chicken," he said. And by that he meant, a gamefowl that can "kill its opponent the fastest time possible." To achieve that is each breeder's secret but all told, a good breed stems from a good bloodline enhanced by proper training and conditioning. Thus, it were the many gamefowl farms in Negros that literally became the laboratory for breeding this kind of chicken.

Aguirre says gamefowl breeding dwells well with the physical characteristics of the area. Its mountainous parts and vast rolling hills provide a perfect home for the birds.

Negros being also the country's sugar base, there are those who took to gamefowl breeding as a hobby while waiting for the long months that their sugarcane will mature. This hobby developed into something more when the people's skills evolved and the potential for it to be another source of income and employment became more evident.

With the boom in the sugar industry then, it is very likely that the wealth that made barons out of sugar planters is the same money stream that sustained this capital intensive "hobby." For who else could afford to import gamefowl from the US and then breed and cross breed them here?

In time, gamefowl enthusiasts and breeders would get their brood from Negros Occidental and very often bring along to their farms a local handler or trainer. Others buy farms in the area and set up base right at the mecca. And soon enough even agro veterinary companies took special interest in the evolving gamefowl industry in this province setting up their depot even feedmills here. Multi-national companies even developed feeds and other formulas carrying a Filipino tag as distinct as the "labuyo".

Today, thousands of gamefowl breeders have sprung across the country. Breeders have also formed associations and confederated into national organizations such as the National Federation of Gamefowl Breeders. This federation alone counts a long list of member organizations one of which is the NGBA.

What Breeds?

One of four species believed to be the forebear of today's gamecock is the Red Jungle Fowl or Labuyo. These birds are endemic in Asia including the Philippines . Stories of old says that the Filipino's penchant for cockfighting is traced to its discovery that this type of chicken can do a little more before landing on the dinning table. And so we were told that cockfighting had already been a past time of Filipinos way before the Spaniards came into the country.

Today's gamecock however is already the product of science and local ingenuity. When Aguirre ventured into gamefowl breeding for instance, he went to the United States to buy his first "trio." This is composed of two hens and a cock. These were bred and cross bred with other bloodlines or with the same bloodline to produce a much better fighter than its predecessor. Normally, the birds displaying good fighting characteristics are further propagated or cross bred with another blood line, but those found to be losers in the pit are culled to prevent further losses.

Aguirre made quite a name in breeding Duke Hulsey Lemons and Greys. These are two imported bloodlines he was able to propagate locally. From these, Aguirre experimented in cross breeding. With his Duke Hulsey Lemon he was able to produce a hit he called the "lemon gwapo" but as to what he cross bred this Hulsey with is the secret of his trade.

Art & Science of Breeding Gamefowl

Speed, cutting accuracy, intelligence, gameness, power and good health are standards that determine a good breed. But the only way to put to test these qualities is in the cockpit. To make sure that the breed will be successful as a mature fighting cock, he usually joins stag-derbies. A stag, a young fighting cock aged 6 to 11 months old is usually ready for the pits at 8 to 9 months. The bird is prepared for the fight right after it comes from the range at about 6 months of age. The conditioning stage starts by delousing and deworming the bird. The feeds is also changed to one that has more protein to develop the bird's muscles. Walking, flying and running exercises are also employed through controlled conditions such as the cord walk where the bird is tied to a cord a meter in length beside a teepee or a shaded area under a tree. Running and flying is limited to a roost or a flypen that is 4 feet wide, 8 feet long and 10 feet high.

There too is the scratch pen meant to exercise the bird's claws. It is a 3x3x3 feet enclosure with materials for the bird to scratch on. In summer, only light scratching is recommended thus materials are usually dried banana leaves. During the cold months the bird will have corn shacks as scratch materials or hay as an in between.

At some point, the bird is made to fight with another chicken. This is called sparring to test the birds fighting ability. If he shows all the fighting qualities aforementioned, then he is usually selected as a candidate to the pits. There is so much more that goes into this. Aside from breeding a bird with good fighting genes and conditioning them with physical and mental exercises, nutritious feed, vitamins and minerals are also included in their diet. In sum, a good bird is a product of the art and science of breeding, that is both genetic and environmental.

So why all the fuss and caring for a bird and have it pitted to die? Aguirre says "that's what makes it a sport. The best of the good birds survive."
Collateral businesses

As this is done, so too evolves spin off businesses to cater the breeding requirements. Producers of feeds for instance have different concoctions for each stage of development: a chick booster for day old to a month, stag developer for 1 to 4 months, enhancers for 4 to 6 months and conditioner pellets for 6 months and beyond.

There are as varied types of dewormers as there are a dozen other vitamins and protein supplements. There are also egg incubators and scales developed with the gamefowl in mind. Then too, backyard smith or panday who used to pound steel to produce gaffs and knives (tari) have been replaced by branded producers.

Recently too, digital technology caught up with the industry. Now there are digital thermometers and hygrometers developed to measure the temperature and moisture level of the chicken and even the cockhouse where the chicken stay while awaiting their turn to fight.

Microchip ID's have also been developed and imbedded into the bird in lieu of the traditional ring or wing band for identification.

At the cockpit, the bird is the commodity. A winner creates a name brand for the breeder. Consistency of their breed is noted as they bring out more winners and from here the multi-million business cycle continues.

As for Negros, more than its inasal, it is this other chicken too that brings the moneyed lot to the area to find the good bird-- to breed, crossbreed, fight at the pits and breed again, -- as it had been through the years.


                            Pag opera sa mga sugat ng manok


This Pictures is take from other Website i just want to share to you. 











          Yan ang mga sample shots ng mga nasusugatang manok sa laban at inoopera pagkatapos ng  laban.





The Gamecock - Basic Breeding Concepts and Considerations

The Gamecock - Basic Breeding Concepts and Considerations

By John W. Purdy © 2003



Breeding gamefowl is one of the many challenging aspects of the Sport of Kings. Numerous books and articles have been written on the subject and they all contain something of value. Over the past several decades, it my belief that the understanding of basic genetics has helped the modern breeder maintain and improve some of the great families of gamefowl that have been passed down through the generations.


Maintaining and improving bloodlines is the primary goal of cockers. Some would say that cockfighting is practiced to provide an avenue for gambling or to satisfy a primitive bloodlust. After 25 years with gamefowl, I can say that the core of cockfighting is about the perpetuation of an ancient, noble and beautiful feathered gladiator by breeding the best to the best. Cockfighting is about holding in our hands the descendents of the same birds that our ancestors held in their hands while admiring the same qualities and puzzling over the same mysteries. Finally, cockfighting is about standing in awe of nature, which has instilled an incredibly deep survival instinct in every living creature.


Just a few more notes before we jump into the subject… I am not a professional breeder. I have never created my own bloodline that whipped all the big boys, although I have bred some pretty good roosters. However, like all cockers, I have some opinions on the subject and a friend asked me to write them down. I have no chickens for sale and no axes to grind. I just enjoy getting some information out there for the beginners to think about.  My opinions are based on a combination of basic genetics, my own personal experiences with breeding gamefowl, and a little common sense.


An effective breeding program is a process that requires a systematic approach. I consider the process equivalent to a road that leads to a particular destination. A cocker can choose the vehicle (bloodlines) and the route (specific breeding techniques) to take. However, a map should be drawn out before the journey starts and it should be consulted from time to time to make sure the original destination seems to be getting closer. Sometimes the destination may change, so a breeder has to remain open minded and flexible. The road is definitely bumpy, but it can be very scenic and enjoyable.


I have identified some important components to any successful breeding program. The  following steps, hard work and a little luck will help a gamefowl breeder produce quality gamefowl.


The 7 steps of successful gamefowl breeding


1.                  Establishing specific goals for the breeding program.

2.                  Identifying and obtaining foundation bloodlines.

3.                  Selecting superior individuals within the bloodlines to breed.

4.                  Setting up the broodpens: choosing breeding strategies.

5.                  Progeny testing: evaluating the success of the program.

6.                  Managing the broodfowl to optimize their productivity and the health of their offspring.

7.                  Record keeping: keeping it accurate.


Step 1: Establishing Goals


In my opinion, establishing goals or objectives is the most important part of the breeding program. Goals for a gamefowl breeding program are probably most easily measured in terms of the winning percentage of the offspring (progeny testing). Having a breeding goal that is quantifiable, or can be measured, assists the breeder when evaluating the success of the specific matings and the bloodlines used in the breeding program. However, there are many factors that contribute to the winning percentage. For example, age, conditioning, weapon used (style, set, quality of steel), the level of the competition and even luck all have a very significant impact on the outcome of a contest.  For this reason, I think it is important to include specific traits as goals in addition to a desired winning percentage. This is because certain traits (primary traits) are correlated to higher winning percentages, and if the fowl produced posses these traits, the chances of success in the pit will increase. Examples of primary traits linked to winning bloodlines include cutting ability, fighting style, strength, speed, body size and type, station, spur alignment, bone size, disposition, and gameness.  Other traits (secondary traits) such as eye color, feather color and condition, leg color, and comb type are important but tend to have a weaker or no correlation to winning percentage.


In order to establish traits as goals, it is necessary to group the traits in order of importance. The most  important  traits should receive the most attention (selection intensity) in the breeding program. More rapid progress can be made by focusing the breeding program on one or few traits. However, this tends to cause a decline or lack of progress in other areas, so a cautious and balanced approach is needed. A breeding program that is balanced will tend to make slower initial progress, but in the long term will outperform a breeding program based on intensive selection for a limited number of traits.


In the following table, I will group traits according to their relative degree of importance in my breeding program, and the degree of selection intensity I feel is merited to each group. Although the groups are arranged by relative importance, all traits in groups A, B & C are important, and all require careful monitoring and consideration. Please keep in mind that these traits, in addition to a minimum winning percentage, are the goals I have established for my breeding program, and are based on  my personal preferences, observations, and experiences.  Breeding program goals for others cockers will likely be significantly different.





General Trait




Specific Quality



Cutting ability


Accurate; efficient; deep





Resistant to disease and stress





Tries to destroy the opponent 100% of the time



Fighting Style


Intelligent, adaptive, head back










Capable of powerful blows





Able to overwhelm/avoid opponent





Ability to give and take for long periods of time



Body size/type/conformation


Avg 5 lb/upright/football













Winning percentage










Bone size





Spur Alignment


Low on shank/aligns with prop toe



Eye color


Red or Orange



Plumage condition


Flexible, long feathers








Leg color


Characteristic of the breed



Comb type


Characteristic of the breed



Plumage Color


Characteristic of the breed




Step 2: Identifying and Obtaining Broodfowl


Finding and obtaining the broodfowl that will meet or exceed expectations is essential to success as a breeder. The fowl the breeder starts his program with are the foundation of the breeding program. A breeder should take his time before rushing out and buying fowl, because finding the good ones is not easy. There are several approaches that can be used, although some methods work better than others.


Identifying a desirable bloodline is best determined by their offspring’s performance in the pit. Fight reports, recommendations from friends, and attending derbies are all ways  to get an idea of how they have performed for other cockers. The fowl should be very strong in the group A and B traits that were identified when planning the goals of the breeding program, and adequate or better in as many of the group C traits as possible. The closer to the goal we are at the beginning, the more quickly it can be reached.  A breeder must be completely honest in his evaluation of the merits and demerits of the prospective bloodlines. The purchasing of broodfowl is a lot like getting married… make sure you can live with what you bring home. If a breeder sees something he doesn’t like, and breeds these fowl, chances are that this trait will likely be passed into the future generations of his fowl.

The most certain way of obtaining good fowl is through friendship. Often a good friend is willing to share his best, compete in a combined entry in derbies, and to swap broodfowl in the future as needed. The advantage of getting fowl through friends is that the breeder has seen the birds compete and knows their strengths and weaknesses and can plan the breeding program accordingly.


Another method is to attend derbies and watch for breeders that show fowl that consistently display the qualities the buyer is looking for. The key is to attend derbies at the same or better level of competition than the level at which the buyer plans to compete in the future (average cocks look good against mediocre competition, but look flat-footed and slow in fast company). Once the sights have been set on a particular bloodline, it would help the buyer to become friends with the breeder. The buyer should inquire how the cocks are bred, how long he has had the bloodline, the origin of the bloodline, and the breeder’s opinion on some important traits and qualities. The breeder may or may not be interested in selling any broodfowl. If not, the buyer may be able to purchase battlefowl instead, test the battlecrosses, and if they pass the test, continue to try to get some broodstock. A buyer should always be respectful and persistent. If the buyer can find out where this successful breeder obtained his fowl, he may be able to get similar fowl from the same source.


Another method is purchasing through the magazines or from the internet. This is definitely the method with the highest rate of failure. There are excellent, legitimate breeders that advertise and those who are not; it is very hard from an advertisement or website to determine who will ship you the type of fowl the buyer wants. If hecan travel to the breeder’s farm, it would improve the chances of getting the good ones, but this, of course, is not a foolproof method.



Step 3. Selecting Superior Individuals


Once the bloodline has been identified and the breeder has agreed to sell some of his fowl, the selection of specific individuals is required. If the buyer order chickens though an advertisement, he must clearly specify his requirements to the breeder and ask if he has fowl that will meet the criteria (e.g., station, body type, fighting style). Once again, visiting the breeder at his farm is a significant advantage when selecting brood or battlefowl. There are often subtle differences between individuals within the same bloodline. For example, if the buyer has a choice between two superb physical specimens with one having a better disposition, it will assist the breeding program to start with the calmer, gentler bird.


The goals for the breeding program should be consulted during the selection process. Every cock and hen should be evaluated with respect to the goals. Selected individuals must be extremely healthy, active and in good flesh. They should be balanced, proportional and represent the characteristics of the bloodline. Both cocks and hens should be relatively calm and good natured. Although mature stags and pullets from winning families are perfectly acceptable for breeding, I prefer fowl that are 2 to 5 years of age so that I have had a chance to test them and their immediate family before introducing them into the breeding program. Waiting until cocks and hens are mature also helps identify any desirable or undesirable traits that may not be readily apparent in stags and pullets (e.g., spraddle legs, nervous personality, late developing fighting ability).


I consider what we do as cockers very similar to what happens in nature, where every individual is competing for survival each and every day. Individuals that can’t compete or adapt do not survive, thus their DNA does not get passed to the next generation. Consider how efficiently birds of prey hunt, pursue and capture their quarry. It stands to reason that the best hunters, those that can adapt to different prey, different habitats, adverse weather conditions and can win territorial disputes will have the greatest reproductive success, thus passing the good genes on the next generation. Likewise, cockers should try to select individuals that have proven their worth in the pit and/or whose brothers, offspring,  immediate family have proven themselves in the pit. Only through competition can we select individuals that have the mental and physical attributes to get the job done. These individuals should be the cornerstones of our breeding programs.



Step 4. Choosing the Right Breeding Strategies


Much has been written about breeding strategies and techniques that have been used successfully to produce ace cocks. Inbreeding, linebreeding, outcrossing, and crossbreeding are breeding strategies that all have their place in the overall breeding program. These methods, when used appropriately, offer the breeder the best chance to maintain bloodlines and to produce consistently competitive battlefowl. The breeder should keep in mind that the foundation of any breeding method is to breed physically and mentally sound cocks and hens that come from winning families.


Before I discuss breeding methods, a quick discussion of basic genetics is needed. Genetics is a very complex subject. The inheritance and expression of DNA is subject to several known and unknown mechanisms of action, of which college textbooks cover in great detail. Complex genetic interactions, the inheritance of sex-linked traits, and traits influenced by multiple genes are certainly relevant to gamefowl breeding but are beyond the scope of this article.


Genes are made up of pieces of DNA, which carries the information about a particular trait. The genotype is the sum of all genes present on the chromosomes. The phenotype is the appearance of the traits, a visual expression of the genotype. Genes almost always occur in pairs. This means that each cock or hen has two copies of any given gene for a specific trait, one derived from the father and one from the mother. A bird that has two different genes for a specific trait is said to be heterozygous for that trait. A bird that has the same two genes for a given trait is homozygous for that trait. 


Some genes and their corresponding traits are dominant or incompletely dominant and others are recessive. A cock that is heterozygous for a particular trait (has one dominant gene and one recessive gene) will look the same as, or similar to (incomplete dominance), to one that is homozygous dominant (has two of the same dominant genes) for that trait. Recessive genes are hidden when paired with a dominant gene. When recessive genes are in a homozygous state (both are identical), they are expressed in the phenotype. An example of this with white and yellow leg color. The gene for white legs is dominant to the gene for yellow legs, meaning a white legged cock or hen could have one gene for white legs (W)and one gene for yellow legs (y), or two genes for white legs (WW). If two heterozygous white legged fowl were bred together (Wy x Wy), the offspring would be approximately 75% white legged [WW or Wy] and 25 % yellow legged [yy] because there is an equal probability that the parent will pass the white legged or yellow legged gene to the offspring. In this case, the ratio of genes in the offspring would be 1 WW: 2 Wy : 1 yy. Another way to say this is that 75% of the chicks would carry the dominant gene for white legs and 25% would receive a recessive yellow legged gene from each parent. In this case where the recessive yellow legged gene is in a homozygous state, it is expressed in the phenotype as yellow legs.


Inbreeding is the breeding of two individuals who are related to each other. Typically all fowl from the same family of fowl are related to some degree, thus inbreeding is practiced whenever we maintain a “pure” line. Linebreeding is a form of inbreeding where particularly superior individuals are used in several generations, which tends to emphasize the genetic influence of the individual in the family.  Inbreeding increases the probability that the two copies of any given gene for a particular trait will be identical, or homozygous for that gene. If the cock and hen are related, there is a chance that the two genes in the offspring are both identical copies contributed by the common ancestor. Close inbreeding uncovers hidden, often undesirable homozygous recessive genes that are carried by both parent fowl. Inbreeding depression is a term used to describe the reduction in performance caused by the expression of  these recessive genes in inbred individuals. Some cockers will use this as a tool to test a new bloodline by fighting year old stags from a brother/sister mating, since this intensive form of inbreeding will quickly bring undesirable qualities to the surface such as lack of gameness. 


Since mating related and phenotypically-identical individuals also tends to increase the number of homozygous dominant genes in the progeny, fowl become more uniform in those traits emphasized in the breeding program. Although true with any breeding system, additional care must be taken with intensive inbreeding (breeding closely related, inbred individuals). Only the very best physical specimens should be retained for maintaining the bloodline and crossing with other bloodlines. Producing these exceptional individuals requires hatching and raising a lot of chicks to increase the probability of the right genetic combination occurring in the offspring.


Increasing homozygous genes in a family through inbreeding increases the probability of producing “prepotent” individuals. Prepotency is the ability of an individual to pass their desirable dominant genes to their offspring. For this reason, prepotent individuals are extremely valuable in linebreeding systems to improve and maintain bloodlines. Although inbreeding will increase the probability of producing prepotency, in my own experience an ace crossbred battlecock was prepotent. Nearly all of his stags were virtually identical to the cock, including fighting style, body shape and station, leg color, a plumage color. They even sounded the same as they all had his distinctive voice.


Outcrossing is the mating of individuals within the same bloodline but having no close ancestral relationships. For example, a trio of Clarets was single mated producing a dozen stags from each hen. When the stags matured into cocks, they were fought and the best multiple time winners were selected for breeding purposes. The original hens were bred to their best sons, and the original cock was used once in the third year in each family. For the next 7 years, the two lines were kept separate, and the original hen and her exceptional son were bred several times in the following generations to increase their genetic contribution to each family. After 10 years, the lines were bred together, resulting in an outcross. The offspring from this mating were tested and the best individuals were bred back to the separate lines. This method of breeding, along with careful selection and progeny testing, can be used to maintain pure families without introducing outside blood. Using linebred, prepotent individuals is highly desirable when outcrossing.


Crossbreeding occurs when two unrelated fowl are mated. Crossbred individuals have many more heterozygous dominant genes present in their genotype. In a heterozygous genotype, dominant genes mask the influence of undesirable or desirable recessive genes. Many of the most successful battlecrosses are produced from crossing two or more unrelated, inbred families of fowl. In fact, the primary reason for maintaining inbred families of fowl is to produce individuals that can be used in crossbreeding systems. This is because crossing two unrelated, inbred bloodlines often results in hybrid vigor in the offspring. Hybrid vigor, or ‘heterosis,’ is the term used when a crossbred individual outperforms the parent fowl. Crossbreeding is widely used in commercial animal production and has proven successful. Hybrid animals and plants tend to grow faster, be more productive and more resistant to stress and disease.  Once again, it must be emphasized that the greatest degree of heterosis is seen when inbred, prepotent individuals are used as the parent fowl.


So how does one select the breeds to cross? Some gamefowl breeders advocate crossing fowl that complement each other, such as breeding a power cock over speed hens, in hopes of producing the ultimate combination of desirable qualities. Others advocate breeding fowl that are similar in type and action, contending that the resulting offspring are more likely to be consistent and predictable.


In my opinion, both schools of thought are likely correct because both have proven to be successful. For example, the popular cross of various Hatch and Roundhead families  clearly indicate the theory of  complementary families is valid. Highly competitive crosses made up of similar families like the Kelso and Albany fowl prove that crossing families that have similar attributes is also effective. The success and failure of any cross is dependent upon the compatibility of the genes and the only way of knowing if the fowl will “nick” is to breed them together and test their progeny.


Crossbred fowl can be used in the breeding program. Many breeders will use superior crosses to add new blood into one or both of the parent lines, especially if the parent lines are intensively inbred  and showing signs of inbreeding depression. After the initial introduction, the new blood is bred out in succeeding generations. The introduced family should be of unquestioned quality, as the introduction of inferior genes into an inbred family is an irreversible process. Recently I was given a trio of Regular Greys from a great friend. The fowl have an excellent winning percentage in the gaff and fight a smart style that would be effective in any weapon. They are deep game, deadly cutters, have great bodies and are good natured.  Their major shortcoming is that the old cock and his two daughters are medium stationed. Since my goal is to produce high stationed cocks, I have developed a plan to increase their station. Since all three of the adult fowl are medium stationed, I am not hopeful that any of the stags and pullets out of this trio will be high stationed. However, there is a possibility that a recessive gene for high station is being masked, so I am breeding them pure to see if the recessive genes will pair up and produce some high stationed offspring. As an insurance policy, I bred a high station Claret broodstag out of a solid Claret bloodline from the same breeder to one of the Grey hens this year. From the stags and pullets I raise from this mating, I will keep the best overall individuals with the highest station to breed back to Greys next season. Since the pullets of any mating often more closely resemble the broodcock, I expect several of the ½ Grey ½ Claret pullets from this mating to be high stationed like the Claret stag. Like wise, the best performing high stationed ¾ Grey and ¼ Claret cocks (which should be carrying the genes for high station from the ½ and ½ pullets) will be bred over the pure Grey hens. If the pure Greys I’m breeding this year produce any high stationed stags or pullets, they will also be bred to the high stationed Grey/Claret crosses and back to the parent fowl. The goal is to eventually breed the Claret contribution down to a 1/16 or 1/32, while retaining the genes for higher station.


Although breeding crossbred fowl to each other is usually unsuccessful, some two-way crosses nick with a third bloodline. Some of the best fowl I have ever raised were out of a ½ Butcher ½ Lacy Roundhead cock and a Hatch hen. If all three of the original parent fowl are from inbred families, the 3-way crosses can be very consistent in appearance and style.  When breeding crosses to crosses, a few excellent individuals may be produced but the pairings of the thousands of possible genetic combinations tends to produce predominantly average or mediocre individuals. An exception to the rule might be a four-way cross produced by mating a two-way cross cock out of two unrelated inbred families (e.g., Hatch and Kelso) to a two-way cross hen out of two unrelated inbred families (e.g., Butcher and Roundhead).  Some animal experiments have indicated an additional boost of hybrid vigor is possible from the resulting four-way cross. This is something you may want to try if you have four inbred families.


All modern breeders acknowledge that the fowl used to develop today’s bloodlines were crosses. However, the successful bloodlines the great breeders in the past developed from these crosses were refined over many years through selection of superior individuals, inbreeding, testing and extensive culling.


No discussion of breeding is complete without addressing single mating, flock mating and yard breeding. The most haphazard and careless way to breed could be called ‘yard breeding.’ This is when the cocker lets his hens runs loose on the yard with cocks on strings. Yard breeding will result in chicks out of several different cocks and hens, as hens will often lay in the same nest, and the breeder will have no idea which hen and cock produced the dunghill or what combination produced the ace. Likewise, another questionable method is flock mating, when one cock is bred simultaneously to several hens of different breeds. The breeder may get some good chickens, but without trapnesting, it is impossible to know what hen laid the golden eggs. A somewhat better flock mating method is to breed a cock to full sisters. However, there are some hens that are much superior producers than their sisters, and with this system it is impossible to know which hens are the best. I recommend for the serious breeder of inbred families, single mating a cock with individually penned hens. In this way, the best individuals are rapidly identified. Their offspring can be single mated and the best retained from those future generations. Once the best hens are identified, they can be used in a flock mating system to produce battlecocks.


Single mating can be a lot of work even if the breeder has just a few cocks and hens. It requires moving the cock every 1-3 days to each hen pen. This year I used a chain link dog kennel 12’ wide and 16’ long to single mate three hens. I built a tee-pee shelter in three corners with a roost and nest box in each one, and tied the hens out on tie-cords. I covered the pen with 2” poultry netting and turned the cock loose among the hens. The hens laid in their individual nests and I didn’t have to move the cock, as he visited each hen several times per day. Based on my hatching rate, he did a fine job, and I know exactly what hen and cock produced each chick.


In summary, consider these key points:


·        Inbreeding is a long-term breeding strategy. It is most useful as a way to strengthen and preserve valuable genetic information in a bloodline. Individuals from these inbred bloodlines are valuable for producing hybrid battle crosses.

·        Inbreeding increases the number of homozygous genes. Remember that this applies to desirable and undesirable genes equally. If inbred fowl are mated and the progeny display undesirable traits, both parents and offspring should be removed from the breeding program because the parents are carriers for the recessive, undesirable gene expressed in the offspring. These individuals could be retained for crossing.

·        Linebreeding is a form of inbreeding in which superior individuals are used multiple times in several generations in the development and maintenance of a bloodline. Linebreeding increases the probability that desirable genes from the superior individuals are passed on to the subsequent generations. Care must be taken when linebreeding apparently superior fowl to other closely related individuals because of the potential for uncovering and passing on undesirable genes.

·        Outcrossing is the mating of unrelated individuals within a bloodline. It is a valuable strategy to maintain a bloodline with minimal effects from inbreeding depression. This strategy requires the maintenance of two or more families within a bloodline.

·        Crossbreeding is the mating of unrelated individuals from two or more separate bloodlines. When compatible bloodlines are used, crossbreeding often results in hybrid vigor, which occurs when the offspring exceeds the performance of the parent fowl.







Step 5. Evaluating the Progeny


The ultimate measure of success of any breeding program is the quality of the resulting offspring. The relative success of the matings is determined by the ability of the offspring to meet the criteria defined in the goals of the breeding program in Step 1.  When breeding inbred families to produce broodfowl, it is only possible to initially evaluate  their outward appearance, body structure, health and disposition; the ultimate test for the worth of broodfowl is their ability to produce winners and future generations of top quality broodfowl. This can make mistakes very costly considering the time and money required to determine the quality of their offspring.


Competition in the pit tests the offspring of the broodfowl and skill of the breeder.  Information learned about fighting style, speed, cutting ability and other important traits should be gathered, analyzed, and used to guide the breeding program in future breeding seasons. Only through experience and being present at the pit when his warriors are doing battle can the breeder learn the weaknesses and strengths of his fowl and make adjustments to the breeding program.


It is true that superior battlecocks don’t always make superior broodcocks. However, history has proven that superior battlecocks make great broodcocks frequently enough to consider breeding a few great winners every year. I like to use great battlecocks over inbred pullets from another breed to make three-way crosses. Some of the greatest breeders of the past bought spectacular crossbred cocks at the pit and bred them into various ‘yards’ or families. They had to discard many of these yards after the offspring were tested, but some of these crossbred yards produced lines that are winning today.


The level of competition is an important factor to consider when evaluating battlefowl. It is a good idea for the breeder to compete a few times each year at the highest level of competition that he can afford. In this way the breeder can get a better idea of how his fowl measure up to the big boys.



Step 6. Managing Broodfowl


It is often said that if two cockers were given identical bloodlines, it would take just a few generations for the descendents of the original parent fowl to look and act completely different. Most of this phenomenon may be related to a different emphasis on specific traits when selecting broodfowl, and it is also related to differing environments (soil, water, climate, feed). However, another significant effect is due to management.


For example, one management technique is to supply artificial lighting to stimulate early egg production. Early eggs mean earlier chicks, which tends to produce larger adult fowl than those hatched in late spring. This simple management technique can have a significant impact on body size. Another example is the effect of the health of the broodfowl upon the health of the offspring. Since health is one of the most important traits we select for, we must manage the broodfowl to maximize health.


The following generic recommendations should be considered to optimize the productivity and performance of the broodfowl. Specific management techniques should be employed in certain situations (e.g., disease; predators; environmental conditions, etc.).


1.                  Employ a regular de-worming and de-lousing program.

2.                  Control the body weight of the broodfowl through diet and exercise. Fat broodcocks tend to produce a lower percentage hatch. Likewise, fat hens lay fewer eggs. Trim the feathers around the vent of each cock and hen to maximize the mating efficiency.

3.                  Provide enough pen space to minimize stress from overcrowding. In my experience, the minimum floorspace for a single mating broodpen (one cock and hen) is 4’ x 5’ or 20 square feet.

4.                  Provide a round roost pole, approximately 2.5 inches in diameter. In flock mating system, adequate roost space is an important detail, as the dominant hens will force the submissive hens off the roost until it is nearly dark. This is stressful on all of the fowl.

5.                  Provide clean, fresh and dry bedding material in the pen. 

6.                  Provide a nest that is big enough so the hen can turn around freely and is protected from the weather. Use clean straw, shavings, or other material in the nest.  In a flock mating system, use one nest per 3 hens if the eggs are picked up daily.

7.                  When using an incubator or a surrogate mother to hatch the eggs, eggs should be picked up at least once per day, kept clean and stored between 55 and 60 degrees Fahrenheit.

8.                  Discard undersized, oversized and odd-shaped eggs.

9.                  Wash dirty eggs soon after gathering. Use hot water and soap or plain hot water and dip in a diluted bleach solution.

10.              Feed a breeder pellet if available. The breeder diet is balanced to promote optimum fertility and hatchability, as well as good egg shell quality. Laying pellets are formulated for the commercial production of eggs without consideration of the requirements of the developing embryo or newly hatched chick.

11.              Provide oyster shells free-choice for strong eggshells.

12.              Feed fruit and vegetables to penned fowl.

13.              Always provide clean fresh water and use a high quality vitamin/electrolyte product 1-3 days per week or more often during extreme heat.

14.              During the off-season when fowl are not breeding, allow them access to grass.

15.              Practice biosecurity. Keep visitors to a minimum, and require shoe disinfection for those who do visit.

16.              Minimize the introduction of new fowl onto the premises. New fowl are potential disease carriers. Isolate new fowl for at least two weeks before introducing them into your breeding program.


Step 7. Record Keeping


To keep track of the specific individuals and matings used in the breeding program, it is necessary to keep accurate records. This will help when the breeder needs to go back and figure out exactly how specific fowl were bred or to determine the degree of relationship between certain individuals within a family or bloodline.


Records should identify the individuals used in the brood pen, including their bloodline, toe mark and wingband number. The toemark and wingband numbers for the chicks produced from this mating also needs recording in the record book. I also record the  number of eggs set, chicks hatched, and date hatched.


During the growing period, I also record mortality caused from predators, disease, culling or other reasons, and note the broodpen number.  If I use medication or vaccinate, I record what, when, and why it was used and the results.





Most cockers probably breed a family of fowl 5 or 6 years before they lose the ‘pure’ individuals and can’t maintain it or the fowl do not measure up to their standards and are discarded. Probably most gamefowl families out there don’t measure up to the requirements of a serious, top-level competitor. However, numerous stories exist of cockers discarding or losing families of fowl only to realize later that they were, in fact, a great bloodline. I have had this experience and I’ll bet most cockers with some breeding experience have also had this unpleasant realization.


Recognizing ‘diamonds in the rough’ is a challenge. If the breeder is starting with deep game cocks, he’ll have a great foundation and with some luck and intelligent breeding decisions, he’ll have something to be proud of. A breeder has to have patience and stick with it. He must breed as many as he can, cull them hard, keep accurate and detailed records, and spend as much time as possible just observing the fowl. Over time, some cockers even develop a ‘gut feel’ for mating individuals or crossing specific bloodlines. Regardless if you become a legendary breeder or stay down to earth on the backyard level, the point is to enjoy the process of creating extremely competitive, awe-inspiring, and absolutely beautiful feathered warriors.




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